All Eyes On Who Black History Month With Marcus Garvey

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Marcus Garvey – born on August 17, 1887 in St. Ann’s Bay, Jamaica. He was a Jamaican born black nationalist who created a “Back to Africa” movement in the United States. He became an inspirational figure for later civil rights activists. At the age of 14 he left school and became a printer’s apprentice where he led a strike for higher wages. From 1910-1912, Garvey traveled in a South and Central America and also visited London. 
     In 1914 he returned to Jamaica and founded the Universal Negro Improvement Association. In 1916, he moved to Harlem, NY where UNIA thrived. Garvey spoke all across America; he urged African-Americans to be proud of their race & return to Africa. In 1919 he founded the Black Star Line to provide transportation to Africa and the Negro Factories Corporation to encourage black economic independence.
    Garvey was arrested in 1922 for mail fraud in connection with the sale of stock in Black Star Line, which had now failed. Although there were irregularities connected to the business, it was said that the prosecution was politically motivated, as Garvey’s activities attracted considerable government attention. Garvey was sent to prison and later deported to Jamaica. He moved permanently to London in 1935, he then died in 1940. In 1964, his body was returned to Jamaica where he was declared the country’s first national hero.
  • founds UNIA in Jamaica, July 1914
  • forms branch in New York City, May 1916 (January 1918?)
  • incorporates movement in New York state, June 1918
  • starts Negro World newspaper, August 1918
  • starts Black Star Line shipping company, 1919
  • starts Negro Factories Corp., 1920
  • announces Liberian Colonization Plan, 1920
  • sends first delegation to Monrovia, Liberia, 1921
  • makes organizational tour of Caribbean and Central America, 1921
  • arrested and indicted on Mail Fraud Charges, 1922
  • meets with Acting Imperial Wizard of the Ku Klux Klan, causing backlash of opposition from other black leaders, 1922
  • second UNIA delegation sent to Liberia, 1923
  • starts Black Cross Navigation and Trading Co. to replace defunct Black Star Line;
  • UNIA purchases Smallwood-Corey School (“Liberty University”) in Claremont, Virginia
  • tours Europe, 1928
  • becomes proprietor of Edelweiss Park, a social center for blacks in Kingston
  • tries to establish political career in Jamaica
  • begins publishing the Blackman, 1929
  • begins publishing the New Jamaican
  • begins publishing the Black Man, 1933
  • bankrupt, announces move to London, 1934
  • teaches School of Arican Philosophy to UNIA leaders in Toronto, 1937
  • cerebral hemorrhage, January 1940
  • dies 10 June 1940
  • James Stewart elected UNIA president, August 1940
  • headquarters of UNIA moved to Cleveland, Ohio

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